Writing Code for Flake8

The maintainers of Flake8 unsurprisingly have some opinions about the styl of code maintained in the project.

At the time of this writing, Flake8 enables all of PyCodeStyle’s checks, all of PyFlakes’ checks, and sets a maximum complexity value (for McCabe) of 10. On top of that, we enforce PEP-0257 style doc-strings via PyDocStyle (disabling only D203) and Google’s import order style using flake8-import-order.

The last two are a little unusual, so we provide examples below.

PEP-0257 style doc-strings

Flake8 attempts to document both internal interfaces as well as our API and doc-strings provide a very convenient way to do so. Even if a function, class, or method isn’t included specifically in our documentation having a doc-string is still preferred. Further, Flake8 has some style preferences that are not checked by PyDocStyle.

For example, while most people will never read the doc-string for flake8.main.git.hook() that doc-string still provides value to the maintainers and future collaborators. They (very explicitly) describe the purpose of the function, a little of what it does, and what parameters it accepts as well as what it returns.

# src/flake8/main/git.py
def hook(lazy=False, strict=False):
    """Execute Flake8 on the files in git's index.

    Determine which files are about to be committed and run Flake8 over them
    to check for violations.

    :param bool lazy:
        Find files not added to the index prior to committing. This is useful
        if you frequently use ``git commit -a`` for example. This defaults to
        False since it will otherwise include files not in the index.
    :param bool strict:
        If True, return the total number of errors/violations found by Flake8.
        This will cause the hook to fail.
        Total number of errors found during the run.
    # NOTE(sigmavirus24): Delay import of application until we need it.
    from flake8.main import application
    app = application.Application()
    with make_temporary_directory() as tempdir:
        filepaths = list(copy_indexed_files_to(tempdir, lazy))
        app.options.exclude = update_excludes(app.options.exclude, tempdir)
        app.options._running_from_vcs = True

    if strict:
        return app.result_count
    return 0

Note that because the parameters hook and strict are simply boolean parameters, we inline the type declaration for those parameters, e.g.,

:param bool lazy:

Also note that we begin the description of the parameter on a new-line and indented 4 spaces.

On the other hand, we also separate the parameter type declaration in some places where the name is a little longer, e.g.,

# src/flake8/formatting/base.py
def format(self, error):
    """Format an error reported by Flake8.

    This method **must** be implemented by subclasses.

    :param error:
        This will be an instance of :class:`~flake8.style_guide.Error`.
    :type error:
        The formatted error string.

Here we’ve separated :param error: and :type error:.

Following the above examples and guidelines should help you write doc-strings that are stylistically correct for Flake8.


Flake8 follows the import guidelines that Google published in their Python Style Guide. In short this includes:

  • Only importing modules
  • Grouping imports into
    • standard library imports
    • third-party dependency imports
    • local application imports
  • Ordering imports alphabetically

In practice this would look something like:

import configparser
import logging
from os import path

import requests

from flake8 import exceptions
from flake8.formatting import base

As a result, of the above, we do not:

  • Import objects into a namespace to make them accessible from that namespace
  • Import only the objects we’re using
  • Add commnts explaining that an import is a standard library module or something else

Other Stylistic Preferences

Finally, Flake8 has a few other stylistic preferences that it does not presently enforce automatically.

Multi-line Function/Method Calls

When you find yourself having to split a call to a function or method up across multiple lines, insert a new-line after the opening parenthesis, e.g.,

# src/flake8/main/options.py
    '-v', '--verbose', default=0, action='count',
    help='Print more information about what is happening in flake8.'
         ' This option is repeatable and will increase verbosity each '
         'time it is repeated.',

# src/flake8/formatting/base.py
def show_statistics(self, statistics):
    """Format and print the statistics."""
    for error_code in statistics.error_codes():
        stats_for_error_code = statistics.statistics_for(error_code)
        statistic = next(stats_for_error_code)
        count = statistic.count
        count += sum(stat.count for stat in stats_for_error_code)
        self._write('{count:<5} {error_code} {message}'.format(

In the first example, we put a few of the parameters all on one line, and then added the last two on their own. In the second example, each parameter has its own line. This particular rule is a little subjective. The general idea is that putting one parameter per-line is preferred, but sometimes it’s reasonable and understandable to group a few together on one line.


If you’re adding an important comment, be sure to sign it. In Flake8 we generally sign comments by preceding them with NOTE(<name>). For example,

# NOTE(sigmavirus24): The format strings are a little confusing, even
# to me, so here's a quick explanation:
# We specify the named value first followed by a ':' to indicate we're
# formatting the value.
# Next we use '<' to indicate we want the value left aligned.
# Then '10' is the width of the area.
# For floats, finally, we only want only want at most 3 digits after
# the decimal point to be displayed. This is the precision and it
# can not be specified for integers which is why we need two separate
# format strings.
float_format = '{value:<10.3} {statistic}'.format
int_format = '{value:<10} {statistic}'.format

Ian is well known across most websites as sigmavirus24 so he signs his comments that way.

Verbs Belong in Function Names

Flake8 prefers that functions have verbs in them. If you’re writing a function that returns a generator of files then generate_files will always be preferable to make_files or files.